Using in vitro tissue models as alternatives to using protected animals

Introduction ……2-7
Alternative to using protected animals / Main text……8-11
References…….12 – 15

Animal studies are a crucial part of medical research and essential to the understanding in biology Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioural Research, 1988). The use of animal models is widely recognised as it enables scientists the opportunity of physiology understanding, pathogenesis of disease, and action of drugs (Simmons, 2008). In 2018, the home office published its annual statistics which shows the total amount of animals used for that year, being approximately 3.52 million (2018 statistics on use of animals in research in UK | British Society for Immunology, 2019). Animals used for scientific purposes within the UK are ruled by the animals scientific (‘Animals Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, Section 1.,’ 2019). Animal reproduction, animal housing, and maintenance of any protected animal that has to be used for research, should be categorised into the regulation of the 3Rs and the protection of laboratory animals (Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986., 2014). William Russel and Rex Burch were two authors who published a book in 1959, The principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Within the book the concept of the 3Rs was created: replacement, reduction, and refinement (Ferdowsian and Beck, 2011). The 3Rs is a tool invented to reduce the number of animals used for scientific research and to make sure all animals are treated humanely. The aim of this critical review is to talk about finding and using an alternative method for scientific research. A good example of an alternative would be the use of 3D modelling, more precisely three- dimensional (3D) culture systems which are able to replicate tissue-like structures of any species including humans, providing a suitable alternative instead of animal use (Chaicharoenaudomrung, Kunhorm and Noisa, 2019).
Throughout history, research animals have provided some of the most lifesaving opportunities towards science. Antibiotics, vaccination, blood transfusion, dialysis, organ transplant, chemotherapy, bypass surgery or joint replacement are only a few examples made possible due to animal testing and research (Medical Advances Foundation for Biomedical Research, 2016). Other examples of medical breakthroughs comprise of Polio, a deadly paralyzing disease, which killed thousands of people before a vaccine was created in 1908 by Dr Karl Landsteiner and Dr Erwin Popper; who injected monkeys with the extracts of the spinal cord of a boy who died from polio. The disease would then be passed from monkey to monkey, this then provided a vital model of the disease (Development of the polio vaccine, 2014). Coronary heart disease is a common but serious condition, where the blood vessels supplying the heart become narrowed or blocked causing high cholesterol. (Nichols, Townsend, Scarborough and Rayner, 2013). Beta blockers a form of treatment used to treat angina, was first developed by Sir James Black and colleagues who worked alongside him at ICI. By conducting screening studies by using ex vivo guinea pig heart muscle and observation in anaesthetised cats, permitted them to record on how the cardiovascular system functions. Two researchers, Kevin Ng, and John Vane in 1981 conducted studies on the first development of the ACE inhibitor Captopril, which was used as a treatment against hypertension, limiting the potential risk of stroke and heart attack. This discovery would have never been made if anaesthetised dogs who were administered with the peptide angiotensin l, when administered into the dog, the peptide passes through the heart to the lungs then returns back to the heart. Furthermore, the peptide gets switched to angiotensin II, that makes blood vesicles constrict while increasing blood pressure (Larouche‐Lebel et al., 2019. The most recent pandemic COVID-19 caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Was first identified in China in December 2019, approximately caused over 200,000 deaths internationally, just in the first four months. Vaccines are currently being developed from the use of animal models funded by MRC (Impact of animal research in the COVID-19 response – Research – Medical Research Council, 2020). World-wide businesses for example Schwarzkopf and Henkel, are two companies that conduct testing on animals both directly in their development process as well as through contracted third-parties use animal models such as rats, mice , hamsters, and lower primates when developing new products (Chen et al, 2020, Is Schwarzkopf Cruelty-Free and Vegan? -, 2020) Acknowledgement of how vital animal research is demonstrated in world-wide circumstances. AALAS, The American association for Laboratory Animal Science association, established in 1950, recognised the importance of animal research. Their code of ethics is based upon 11 steps one of which “ promote and encourage the highest level of ethics within the profession of laboratory animal science” (American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 2020), (Brønstad et al., 2016).
Legislation was brought in by the UK with the aim of ensuring all laboratory animals are protected. Documented as ASPA “Animals scientific procedures act 1986” states, All vertebrate species, and cephalopod species are considered protected. When the protected animal has reached two thirds of its gestation or incubation period and can individually feed for itself. However, it must be known that a cephalopod in its embryonic form is not a protected animal (‘Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, Section 1.,’ 2019). Animal reproduction, animal housing, and maintenance of any protected animal should be categorised into the regulation of the 3Rs and the protection of laboratory animals (Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986., 2014).
Alho et al., (2016). Talks about the effects that may occur in cats who do not receive adequate enrichment, this may potentially lead to conditions for example: feline idiopathic cystitis, obesity, anxiety, and stress. Due to laboratory rules and regulation, all felines belonging to scientific research, have to be accommodated inside because of health reasons and hygiene. Which could potentially disrupt or affect the outcome of a particular experiment. It is vital for scientific research workers to guarantee suitable enrichment to be provided to laboratory cats in order for the animal to demonstrate their natural behaviours.
Any procedure carried out on a protected animal that may cause any suffering, pain, lasting harm, or distress comparable to or greater than that of the insertion of a hypodermic needle, the procedure is then registered as regulated, conferring to respectable veterinary practice. (Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986., 2014) suggests a procedure carried out on animals must only be untaken if it has a scientific or learning purpose. The reproduction of genetically engineered animals is included under the guideline of regulated procedures. Conducted in 2017, a home office report reveals roughly 15% of genetically modified animals had suffered a damaging effect, either physically or mentally because of the genetic alteration procedure (Great Britain and Home Office, 2018). Scientists can now alter pig genomes to be comparable to that of human biology (Li et al., 2015). This presents the doubt of how dependable animal models are if scientist have to alter animal genomes in the hope of making them compatible to human biology.
An ethical substitute would be a fitting alternative instead of experimenting on and using protected animals. Additional regulated procedures include the evaluation of numerous distinct toxicological endpoints containing acute oral toxicity and skin sensitisation. Oral toxicity studies consist of deciding what is the median lethal dose administrated in a substance, this is recognised as LD50 investigating (Zakari and Kubmarawa, 2016). The aim of this test is to establish the lethal dose liable for killing half the applicant animal models during a 24-hour time frame. The LD50 testing method is constantly being argued amongst animal specialists since it needs a substantial quantity of animals to gain any scientific numerical data. Where these animals are being insensitively produced in order to be killed through testing lethal doses at various toxicity levels which is deemed as merciless and an improper use of animals Buesen et al., 2016). Guinea pigs are regularly employed as test models for skin sensitisation, which comes under the category of toxicology, which has an endpoint that requires to be measured precisely, especially when creating and testing dermatology products. Because of testing a product designed for human use, this then further expands the doubt of how animals can be used to determine the products outcome as the results cannot be 100% accurate, since there is a difference between human and guinea pig biology. Scientists have to use an adjuvant, which is applied to the guinea pig. This then causes discomfort and suffering towards the guinea pig, underlining the suitability of using an alternative technique (Basketter and Kimber, 2018).
Any research project necessitates a broad design assessment in order to be approved by a governing body, who has to contemplate ethical considerations when incorporating the use of animals for the particular project which is yet to be carried out. The reason why a broad design assessment is conducted is to certify the rules of the 3R’s have been employed within the research plan (Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986., 2014). By implementing the 3Rs policy towards any research plan, it demonstrates how to humanly treat and use research animals, whist preventing any errors from occurring during the investigation (Kandárová and Letašiová, 2011). The definition of replacement is described as a replacement of protected animals by non-sentient material or technique. It must be clearly understood that replacement does not essentially imply you cannot use animals at all for scientific investigation, it refers to the use of other options, instead of just solely depending on animal use. When testing out a new type of substance or toxicological hazard, using and applying different alternative methods carry out the standards of reduction by limiting the amount of animals incorporated into a scientific experiment, refinement is specified as the limitation of the rate or cruelty of practices performed for investigation.
A principle known as absolute replacement is a concept designed to get rid of animals from scientific research and procedures while finding suitable alternatives (Parker and Browne, 2014). In recent times, scientists can now use mathematical and computer models as an alternative as well as incorporating the use of human tissues, cells and developed cell lines (NC3Rs, 2020). Further research has concluded, without the use of animal test models, this would then produce insufficient data (MacArthur, 2018).

Alternative to using protected animals / Main text
The use of animal models in research is frequently limited by accessibility of test models, possibility of testing techniques, and ethical concerns about distress or pain produced to live subjects. Additionally, animal models may not sufficiently calculate the clinical efficacy of therapeutics for certain human tissue types (Elliott and Yuan, 2011). In the early 90s Tissue engineering was described by Langer and Vacanti as an interdisciplinary field that was brought in to overcome disadvantages of organ transplantation for instance, donor shortage, need of immunosuppressive therapy (Caddeo, Boffito and Sartori, 2017). The use of cell cultures is one of the various techniques represented which can be bioengineered into replicating living tissue of any animal species (3D Biomatrix, 2011). In the 1970’s a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon at the children’s hospital W.T. Green, M.D in the aim of generating new cartilage, the procedure required using chondrocytes that seeded onto spicules of bone and implanted in nude mice. Unfortunately, the experiment was a failure, however the surgeon accurately determined that with the advent of pioneering biocompatible materials it would be possible to generate new tissue by seeding viable cells onto correctly shaped scaffolds. (Vacanti, 2006) From that point this would then mark the beginning of a new medical breakthrough where the investigation would be later reappointed by Drs. Burke and Yannas of the Massachusetts General hospital and M.I.T who produced a dermal skin tissue sample that originated from neonatal fibroblast in collagen gels the technique would be applied in the aim of stimulating the growth of skin cells, a technique known as bio-scaffolding (Hodges and Atala, 2014). Because of Yannas and bell and their discovery in skin tissue growth, the scientific advancement can be applied towards skin grafts in burn vitamins, including other medical uses (Jelinek, 2013).

There are a few procedures involved when producing a 3D cell culture; one technique would be to implant required cells into a matrix usually made of collagen, or gel which is then set aside to cultivate. Another method of producing a 3D culture would be pulsar laser deposition, mentioned by Jelinek. Further approaches in producing a 3D culture mention the use of human skin applied from the extracellular matrix as a bio-ink, this can then be applied to print and construct an exact replica of a tissue section (Kim et al, 2018). Investigation carried out about the technique concluded in contrast to the other method of collagen-based skin tissue, it remained more durable, less prone to reduction in size and showed to have greater dermal excretions and barrier functions.
The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main areas in the medical field that requires the use of 3D printing/ biomaterials (Heinonen, 2015). A good example of when 3D biomaterials has been applied is in the medical advancement of cornea eye surgery. Usually a patient that undergoes cornea replacement surgery, would receive the cornea of a rabbit. Although a success within most patients, investigation has shown that using a 3D cell culture grown replica of a human cornea produced higher reproducibility and fewer irregularity in results when corresponding to the rabbit cornea. For this, it can be drawn towards using 3D cell culture as a suitable alternative (Hahne et al, 2012). Additional treatments consist of stem cell research. Scientists are able to precisely duplicate the exact micro-environment that stem cells require in order to survive comprising the capability of cell to cell signals, and the exact physical structure of the cell from 3D scaffolding. Other areas in which this can be applied to is human chronic liver disease, where animal models in the form of rats are used (Lui et al, 2018).
By using 3D biomatrices it allows scientists to copy (hphs) human primary hepatocytes instead of using rats or porcine hepatocytes. By scientists applying 3D biomatrices into their research, this presents an effective alternative in comparison to animal models. 3D biomatrices has revolutionised many medical issues such as necrosis and dedifferentiation which can now be treated effectively because of 3D biomatrices (Mirdamadi et al, 2020). Likewise, oncology researchers use 3D cell cultures when investigating proangiogenic factors such as, chemoattractants and angiogenesis of cancer cells (Katt et al, 2016).
3D biometrics can duplicate several systems; blood vessels and neural vessels can be replicated just in one culture. This allows researchers to examine how an organ functions when effected by disease. A good example of this is the heart muscle and cancer cells (Sung and Beebe, 2014, Arslan et al, 2019). Before 3D biometrics was available, scientists would have used animal subjects for research that caused suffering and fatalities (VUMC, 2020).
3D cell cultures are a relatively new appraisal, and with it comes the need for further information and engagement since public awareness towards the subject area is absent. 3D cell cultures require neural and brain tissue. Some medical investigations have highlighted the prospect tissue cultures are living and therefore are able to covey neural function (Quadrato et al, 2017). Other issues incorporate the crossing of species DNA since each animal has a unique cardiovascular system (Monahan-Earley, Dvorak and Aird, 2013). And when transplanted into a different species it is unknown whether or not the animal model can express, natural neurological functions for instance, enjoyment or discomfort (Vermeulen et al, 2017, Farahany et al, 2018).
Researchers need to utilize the concept of the 3Rs when in the preparation phase of creating the 3D biomatrices, including where the particular tissue sample originates from. A scientific experiment conducted in Japan use stem cells, taken from rat embryos and directed to develop spinal cord tissue in other rats who had severed spinal cords (Hokkaido University, 2016,) Although the experiment was a success, it resulted in the countless killing of healthy rats. This underlines how suitable 3D cell culture is, since it does not require the use of animal models.
Animals have a fundamental contribution to the progression of medical research. However, researchers including the public need to have a clear understanding when it comes to animal testing, including the particular forms of legislations that must be followed and applied. Additionally, the suitable replacements that are available to use instead of using animal models for example 3D biomatrices, cell culture, and biomatrix and how these techniques can be applied within the science and medical fields.

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Becoming an evidence-based bio-veterinary science practitioner

Within the Veterinary field, many professionals are asking for the use of evidence-based practice within the workplace. What is EBP? And what does it stand for?

Evidence-based practice (EBP) was initially developed in health care sector incorporating the practise of the finest obtainable, reliable, and related information to direct important choices in practice. It’s standardization of practice emphasises the need for more practitioners to adopt this method into their own practices in the constantly changing bio veterinary science stratum. Being professionals, we have an obligation to establish choices in relation to objective and current evidence to be considered competent have to be built on the preferences of individuals getting care, guided by specialist belief, within the context of best available evidence. Medical professionals, including veterinarians, frequently depend too strongly on the personal choices of co-workers and specialists without checking related research and literature. Evidence-based practice models are designed approaches to support choice decisions in practice, letting us to move towards further effective, empathetic methods of care.

How evidence- based practice supports you
Because of the restrictions of limited time for research inside veterinary practices, countless questions within practice are not answered. Consequently, Evidence-based practice acknowledges these questions to be answering , offering a systematic approach designed for sorting information into clinically significant evidence, and assists in determining what may possibly work and what may not be appropriate in specific situations. The practice also delivers clients and practitioners an understanding of possible risks, advantages and doubts involved when performing procedures and prescribing treatments to patients. Veterinary practitioners are under an ethical responsibility to offer a good quality of care for animals including their owners, creating a vigorous discussion in practice. By employing evidence-based practice as part of your position, you can indicate the consequences, desires, and choices of your personal clients, guaranteeing that every patient receives the highest level of medical care available. Making use of the best obtainable research will prevent the bias from inadequate value opinion and permit you to expand client gratification whilst lowering expenditures.
Despite the advantages to patients and your own practice, there can be disagreements in how to best execute evidence-based practice into day-to-day practice. Understanding and applying any new skill requires time and dedication, and evidence-based practice is no different. In order to have evidence-based practice incorporated into your practice, you must be willing to adopt any new changes within your practice, including your own long-held opinions.

(EBP) models– Asking the most beneficial Questions
EBP models are important steps, which enable you to understand and utilize evidence-based practice into your practice. Several models of evidence-based practice are available, with some being incorporated and used in veterinary science and nursing. These models comprise four or more additional measures:

1. Constructing the clinical question:
Constructing a clinical question is structured on detecting and recognizing crucial parts of a case to then design and create a suitable concise question. A good example of this is the PICO model:
• (Patient/Problem) – By What Means would you explain a group of patients that are equivalent to your own?
• (Intervention) – Which main involvement are you contemplating?
• (Comparison) – What is the key option to your recommended involvement?
• (Outcome) – What do you intend to develop/evaluate/affect?)

2. Retrieving evidence
3. Evaluating/analysing evidence
4. Deciding on a clinical decision

Examples of two different models of EBP are John Hopkins and lowa, are two distinct illustrations of models that develop upon these recommendations. These models build on the basic model by boosting the communication of effective practices, along with applying and monitoring the results of clinical choices. Self-evaluation is additionally essential in these models, as reminiscing upon your individual events could enhance your clinical practice – talking about your approach with your client and colleagues encourages more mindful decision making and supports you to develop as an individual.

Picking and Evaluating Evidence
Deciding on the correct types of evidence is key to using models of evidence-based practice. This is why, evidence ranking has been created to make the choice easier.

Evidence can be represented in numerous types, i.e. pyramid of evidence, policies, state regulations guidelines, and hands on experience to quality improvement data. Databanks are also sources of evidence that comprise of online journals and books e.g. ScienceDirect, Plos one and Doaj are just three of the many accessible online databanks which are useful tools for retrieving different forms of evidence. To find and establish the best evidence, you may find it beneficial to research an array of databases. However, if you are restricted by time, the important thing is to ensure you pick one source that best represents the evidence.
All response to clinical questions should always be of high quality and appropriate towards your client. The two lowest sources of evidence are Background information and expert opinion. Since expert opinion is primarily established on personal experience and practice, its use is akin to that of background information. However, these resources are not completely ineffective, as they can be effective in re-establishing your understanding on important areas prior to conducting research. Categorized on top of this are unfiltered sources, which consist of cohort and case studies. While deemed more dependable compared to basic background sources, you have to still review these sources for their validity and appropriateness. When evaluating evidence, things you have to initially think about contain:

• How effective is the sample when representing the population?
• Is the size of sample and choice of method accountable?
• Are you able to reproduce the results?
• What are the confounding factors?
• Are the decisions plausible?

Systematic reviews are the most superior form of evidence, as it provides in the delivery of assessments on validity, clinical importance, and relevance of research. They are a useful resource, bringing together many results from studies in an easy to understand approach. However, systematic reviews are the less used type of evidence, since a lot of steps are involved which takes a considerable amount of time. When possible, you should engage to these sources when thinking about clinical questions. The most suitable form of evidence alters on the type of questions that requires an answer, therefore continuous use of systematic reviews integrated to every clinical decision is impractical. Alternatively, any articles issued on topic of your question have not been answered, you may utilize previous examples in answer to your question. The technique could be more time-consuming nonetheless will benefit your patient including other practitioners who may potentially come across a similar scenario.

How can you participate?
EBP is continuously redesigning. Aided by the support of practitioner’s expertise, knowledge, skill, and understanding can expand, enhancing the pace at which innovative methods and thoughts are utilized when used in practice. In applying evidence-based practice, others can be supported in their selection of the best-informed decisions to the advantage of their clients, and their own practice. This scenario when deployed successfully can then be applied in practice to daily scenarios, while answering any medical questions with certainty.

Additional information relating evidence-based practice, can be sourced from the referance list below. 2019. UC Library Guides: Evidence-Based Practice In Health: PICO Framework And The Question Statement. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 April 2020].
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See the RCVS evidence-based veterinary practice position here:

EBP pyramid

Review on EBP

Definition of EBP?
Many medical organisations are demanding the use of EBP in the medical institute, with two questions being asked: What is EBP, and what does it stand for? EBP stands for (Evidence Based Practice) – the application of the latest accessible, reliable, and applicable data to influence personal judgement in a medical institution. as specialists we have responsibility and accountability from a legal perspective to build our choices on intention, recent evidence to be deemed proficient; our choices must be founded on partiality towards patients getting treatment, guided by expert point of view, following the perspective of superficial evidence. Medical specialists become reliant on the personal choices of fellow peers and experts, rather than researching the relevant topic or reading over suitable literature. EBP models are organised approaches to help support choices made within practice, assisting us to aspire towards more efficient, sympathetic types of care.
What is gained from EBP?
In veterinary practices, time constraints make it impossible to do everything including the longevity of research skills, most questions in practice remain unexplained. This is where EBP can be so effective it enables any questions to become addressed, offering a structured framework for sorting data into legitimate evidence, encouraging us to determine possible ideas that could possibly work , or what might not be appropriate in some scenarios. EBP, offers patients and practitioners greater insight of the threats, advantages, and doubts towards course of action and treatments. Veterinarian specialists have an honourable responsibility to supply appropriate treatment for animals’ whist maintaining animal ethics, including moral support for their owners. Starting a strong negotiation in practice. By using EBP in your profession, you can replicate the benefits, concerns, and decisions that your clients may have, guaranteeing all patient’s experiences the finest medical attention possible. By incorporating the latest advisable research towards your patient, will prevent favouritism from weak meagre belief, whist it enables you to increase client contentment and lower cost. Taking into consideration the understandable challenges in applying EBP into everyday practice. Understanding and applying a different skill requires time and persistence, with EBP is not dissimilar, but the advantages to patients and your own practice is well worth the additional demands.

EBP Models- Raising the key questions?
EBP training models are suggestions, a set of simple guidelines, which you can employ to comprehend and apply EBP into your practice. Several models of EBP have been designed. A few can be used in veterinary medicine or any other medical organisations. Some of these model examples:
1. Building the clinical question
Creating a clinical question depend on discovering and attaining key parts of a case to develop a suitable and brief question. The PICO model is a beneficial approach of explaining your question
P(patient/problem)- Just how would you define a group of patients comparable to your own?
I (Intervention)- What main involvement are you thinking about using?
C (Comparison)- What is the leading replacement to your suggested involvement?
O(Outcome)- What do you aim to better/evaluate/alter?
2. Retrieving evidence
3. Evaluating/scrutinize evidence
4. Determining a clinical judgement
Examples of two different models of EBP are John Hopkins and lowa. These are two separate representations of models focused on these principles. Both models build upon the basic model by promoting the interaction of good strategies and the implementation and evaluation of clinical decision results. Self-evaluation has always been an essential part of these models, because, peer-reviewing your personal decisions will enhance your clinical practice. Furthermore, talking about your choices with your client as well as colleagues encourages more informed decision making and allows you to grow as a person.
Choosing and Reviewing Evidence
Choosing suitable types of evidence is vital to the use of EBP models, hence the creation of evidence ranking has been established to make this choice simpler:

EBM Page Generator (2006) from Dartmouth College and Yale University and the Coursera MOOC “Understanding Clinical Research: Behind the Statistics“ (2016). Originally located at

Evidence can be represented in countless ways, for instance, strategies and state regulations. Hands on experience, too quality progress data. ScienceDirect and PubMed, are just two of many accessible online databases comprising online journals and peer reviewed papers. These are essential resources to discovering different types of evidence. It can be useful to look at a range of databases to find and build the best evidence. However, if there are time restrictions, the important thing is to pick one source which will probably best represent the evidence.
The finest style of evidence to work out a clinical question should constantly be of high-level and appropriate towards your client. Experience knowledge and specialist belief are the least sourced types of evidence. As the preponderance of the specialist belief is founded on individual familiarity and application, its use is comparable to that of experience knowledge. These resources are not completely inefficient though, because they might be utilized to re-establish your understanding on important fields prior to overseeing research. Categorized on top of this are unfiltered sources, comprising of cohort and case studies. Even though they are furthered dependable than basic background sources, you will be required to still review these resources for their authenticity and suitability. When assessing evidence, matters you have to initially think about consist of
1. Does the sample represent the population accurately if so how?
2. Is the size of sample and choice of method accountable?
3. Is it possible to repeat the results?
4. Can you talk about the confounding factors?
5. Is your choice of conclusion reasonable?
On top of the hierarchy is systematic review’s, delivering evaluations on the authenticity, scientific significance, plus applicability of research. These evaluations are useful assets as they bring together the findings from numerous reports in a broad style. However, they are the sparsest form of evidence. As soon as conceivable, you must engage with these resources when thinking about clinical questions. The most suitable form of evidence varies on the type of question that needs to be answered, hence using systematic reviews to all clinical decisions is impractical. In its place, if articles do not answer the topic of your problem, you may use alternative models previously mentioned. Systematic review method is predominantly time-consuming; however, it will aid your patient, including other medical practitioners who could possibly face related conditions circumstances.

How can you participate in EBP?
EBP is regularly redesigned with impute of practitioner’s expertise, providing essential knowledge to anyone who is new to the medical profession, expanding the pace at which different methods and beliefs are utilized in modern practice. By using EBP, you can support others in determining the best-advised decision is for their clients/practice. Applying and retaining EBP will guarantee you can deal with any daily situations effectively, whist answering any medical issues confidently.

Brockport, 2019. Research Guides: Evidence-Based Medicine Research: Sources for EBM.. [Online]
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[Accessed 9 December 2019 ].
Gawlinski, A. and Rutledge, D. N., 2008. Selecting a model for evidence-based practice changes. AACN Advanced Critical Care , 19(3), pp. 291-300.
Greenhalgh, T., 2014. How to read a paper. [Online]
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RCVS, 2013 . RVCS position paper on EBVM. [Online]
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Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg , W. M., Gray, J. A., Haynes, R. B., & Richardson, W. S. 1996. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. British Medical Journal, 312(7032), pp. 71-72.

Reflection on the results of a research skills test.

Though I am self-assured in my descriptive statistics question, entering data, accessing statistics. Writing conclusions and drawing and labelling graphs, are areas I want to progress more. When answering the statistics question during my sector studies exam, I was able to use my familiarity gained from previous tests to apply a strong academic answer, which I know was effective since receiving feedback through email from my tutor.
Within the exam I found some of the questions unfair for instance, I had to name different research websites which put me at a disadvantage as I wasn’t expecting a question in that form to be a part of the exam. As a result, I found it challenging to write an answer to the question, which was throughout the exam from start to finish in different questions. Prior to the exam, the head lecture who was in charge of sector studies gave me guidance throughout the course and even organizing extra support sessions, which provided me more sureness as I felt encouraged to complete the task.
However, upon seeing the amount of comments on my first practice paper, I felt disheartened. But after I had looked over them, I realised these results are all positive inclusions towards the goal of success. It reminded me that while I was able to do really well on the descriptive statistics question, I need to develop my entering data, writing conclusions and drawing and labelling graphs skills further, as in next semester those skills will be a part of my module nutritional biochemistry.
I am very interested in developing my skills on areas in sector studies where I am not at my strongest, and so using the notes from my lecturer I can take the outcome from the exam on board and create a plan to improve on areas where I’m not so effective at, by using a method known as Cornell method. Originated from united states of America University. This strategy gets me thinking about what I have learned during my semester, by writing down key information from my lecture then summarizing the content being revised (Duyga centingoz, 2010).
Each day I will spend 3-5 hours going over topics that I feel less confident in, designing flash cards that will have written on them key terms from the subject area I need to remember. asking for extra support from fellow peers or using literature from the library that has suitable information to excel my knowledge. A good book to use would be probability and statistics by (Spiegel, Schiller and Srinivasan, 2013) This book goes into good detail explaining the problems I am bound to see during my undergraduate degree. The book explains how link and probability are connected and how to understand statistical or probability outputs.
I found the Cornell method the best way of revising because, I had to remember different methods for working out results, for me to then explain what the results show for example the mean; highest recorded data takeaway the lowest recorded data. The median; is a statistic method used for splitting the higher group of numbers from the lower group of numbers from data points that have the values above or below the median value (Manikandan S. 2011) ∑ represents sum of total numbers used in the same concept as the mean when working out the total amount of how many numbers there are; 6,8,9,3,2,0,10 the answer would be 38 as this is the total of all the figures added together.
But next year I plan to change it because I feel it would be beneficial to change how I approach revision using a different method known as select elect. Is another revision technique that will be effective for my development in learning. The method gets me to think about my revision by choosing the best from a chosen revision subject, facts ideas or terms. Prioritizes information which is the most important knowledge, ideas and concepts I need for future examinations. This technique leads me to engage with my syllabus material whilst being aware of what would be the most useful information I need to remember (Zhang, 2016).
Fundamentals in bio-veterinary science have shown me how much of my scientific knowledge I need to improve on. While I feel conformable talking about acid, bases, and buffers. Scientific notation and chemical nomenclature. Osmosis, homeostasis, and stoichiometry are areas that I feel less positive towards, and as a result has led to assignments within fundamentals not achieving the grades that I desire. Learning from my assignments I can now create a plan looking over my comments from tutors which I can then evaluate from to improve on future assignments within those subject areas.

Duyga centingoz, 2010 university students learning processes of note-taking strategies procedia-social and behavioural sciences volume 2 issue 2 pages 4098-4108 Available from
Manikandan S. Measures of central tendency: Median and mode. J Pharmacol Pharmacother [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 May 24];2:214-5. Available from:

Spiegel, M., Schiller, J. and Srinivasan, R. (2013). Probability and statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill.4th edition.
Zhang, L. (2016). Believability Relations for Select-Direct Sentential Revision. Studia Logica, [online] 105(1), pp.37-63. Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2019].

Understanding of cellular processes that could be used to determine how pathogens act

A virus can be compared to an intruder or a thief, and that is because viruses are not cells (Mateu, 2013) They do not really need a nucleus and they would not need a cytoplasm or a membrane to protect them (ScienceDaily, 2019,). Viruses are not formed in the same way most cells are. Viruses mostly break inside a host cell for the purpose of using the hosts cell’s enzymes and organelles which the virus requires in order to reproduce (De Robertis, Nowinski and Saez, 1970). Therefore, a virus can be known as an intracellular parasite (Dimmock, Easton and Leppard, 2001) Since viruses are not formed in the same way most cells are, a virus can only reproduce by invading a host cell where their genome is a material of nucleic acid that can be DNA or RNA (Gelderblom, 2019) which goes onto to reproduce internally within living cells in a process known as viral replication (Hammer, 2019) and have the adaption of their biological system, which can transport the synthesis that belongs to specialized particles known as the virion, which itself houses the viral genome (Knipe and Howley, 2013, Fields of virology), and then directs it towards many cells within the body. This then increases their pathogenic outcome of transmission (Nathanson, 1997, Viral Pathogenesis) as the virus is able to spread their genome sequence from an infected host to another that is unaffected (Tennant, Fermin and Foster, n.d.). Carp may be the most prized fish species in the world, due to the various varieties of carp that are widely available, becoming a highly regarded fish by many people, who pay large sums of money for them. However, these valuable carp often become diseased. This report will look at cellular processes in carp and how they relate to pathogens. However, it will not look at treatments for carp diseases.
Carp virus
One of the biggest pathogenic killers is spring carp viremia virus (SVCV) (see plate 1) a cytopathic virus that is related to the Rhabdoviridae family (Ashraf U, 2019) a variation of vesiculovirus that causes febrile systemic infection affecting a large quantity of cyprid species (MacLachlan and Dubovi, 2017) SVCV is common within the regions of Europe and can be found within serval other regions that includes United states and China (Fowler and Miller, 2008) SVCV pandemics have been reported to cause some serious losses to the carp population (, 2019) Common carp are much more vulnerable of getting the deadly disease (, 2019) which mostly affects the fish throughout springtime. The possible explanation for this would be because, average water temperatures during those months are generally between 100c to 170c. This is the perfect temperature for SVCV to prosper (Ahne , 2002). However, if the temperature of the water is higher, carp carrying the virus begin to produce immune response antigens, which help combat the SVCV. The antigens then make the fish immune to the SVCV (, n.d) Carp pick up the virus from actually eating the faeces and urine made by fish carrying the virus. However, in the carp’s environment there will be blood sucking leeches as well as the carp louse which are parasites that too are carries of the SVCV coming under the category of mechanical vector (, n.d))
Virus description
The SVCV pathogen can be known when examined under a microscope, due to its distinguishable rod and otherwise bullet shaped attribute (, 2019). Every strand of SVCV houses a negative strand of RNA genome (Mahy and Van Regenmortel, 2014). On the other hand, the sequencing RNA ultimately requires instructions to construct the five proteins nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and the large polymerase protein (Lenoir, 1973) The five proteins are required for the transference of the SVCV, as the virus uses the proteins as hosts in order to affect healthy unaffected cells (Wei et al., 2016). It then uses the infested protein to spread from one place to another within the body. The SVCV virus is restricted to a certain quantity of hosts cells. The virus can do this by acting as a lock and key fit that wedges amongst the proteins on the outside of the virus and then the receptor molecules on the host’s surface (De Robertis, Nowinski and Saez, 1970). Only the nucleoprotein is connected to viral RNA, which helps in the configuration of nucleocapsid shaping and virus assembly morphing. The matrix protein collects pathogen and it then has the ability to alternate the pathogens structure (Zhang et al., 2009). Glycoprotein is a part of viral endocytosis (Vogt et al., 2005).The SVCV G protein, a viral protein present on the gene encoding surface has the power to design trimeric peplomers and activates cellular signalling pathways which goes onto beginning the process of viral endocytosis making SVCV G protein the central point of vigilant counteracting antibodies. (Sorkin and von Zastrow, 2010). Endocytosis is a form of active transport that shifts molecules like organelles, cell pieces and even other whole cells into a different individual cell (Marsh, 2001).

Plate 1 SVCV Diseased carp (Fishelp, n.d)
Endocytosis appears in many different variations; however, all share a common similarity to the cell’s plasma bilayer, by developing a pocket around all of the target particles (Kubo et al., 2012). Once the pocket has successfully wrapped itself around the developing pocket, the pocket then pinches off leaving behind just one molecule which then gets encapsulated within a newly assembled intracellular membrane. This is known as pinocytosis (La Bella, 1973). Alternatively, there is the opposite process, where materials get placed inside a cell. This process is known as exocytosis (Regazzi, 2011). Material gets dislodged from the cell moving towards the extracellular fluid where the waste material gets enfolded within a membrane that then fuses in the inside of the plasma membrane (Gauthier et al., 2011).The whole fusion process causes the membrane envelope to unlock from the outside of the cell, which then causes the waste material to get ejected directly into the extracellular space.

For SVCV to colonize by spreading from one cell to the next, duplicating as it goes, which increases the variety of the virus. SVCV needs to take over the active site. The virus has one obstacle that prevents it from taking over the active site. IFN referred to as an interferon are proteins produced by cells when endanger from being taken over from viral infection (GC, 2009). Interferons are part of the non-specific immune system that only become active when being stimulated to a response (Le Page C, 2000) The main function of an interferon is to tamper with any intracellular pathogen that chooses to intrude a host cell which the virus causes the host cell to produce antiviral response.
Cells which have been invaded by the SVCV will be recognized by the immune response, which act’s on trying to prevent SVCV from replicating inside one cell then transferring to the next by using a biological process known as phagocytosis (Naik, 2013). A cellular process that is crucial for the removal of pathogens. It does this by engulfing of solid particles performed by the cell membrane, which then gets broken down by enzymes and then absorbed by cells (Gordon, 1999). Phagocytosis is a key stage used for the removal of pathogens and cell debris. On the other hand, SVCV has evolved a tactic to defeat interferon response. SVCV does this by invading a host cell in response to the invasion of SVCV. The invaded cell will send out a signal known as the retinotic acid enzyme inhibitor, which can be termed RIG-1 (Matsumiya, 2011). This gene acts as another line of defence to safeguard the cell by acknowledging harmful viruses only after the virus itself has been located. A immediate response will be sent out which effectively activates for the production of interferons produced from the immune response (Finter, 1967).
Fish that are unfortunate enough to have the virus will demonstrate signs such as petechial haemorrhage causing a serious problem towards the skin, gills, eyes and most vital organs. In addition, other negative consequences of SVCV usually involve gill deterioration, inflamed and solid hard spleen, hepatic necrosis enteritis and pericarditis (Aphis, 2004)

Ahne, W. et al., 2002. Spring viremia of carp (SVC). Diseases of aquatic organisms. Available at: [Accessed April 25, 2019].
APHIS, Veterinary Services. (2004). Questions and answers on spring viremia of carp for producers. Riverdale, MD: APHIS, Veterinary Services.
Ashraf U, e. (2019). Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances. – PubMed – NCBI. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019]. (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Chiu, W., Johnson, J. and Chiu, W. (2003). Virus Structure. Burlington: Elsevier (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
De Robertis, E., Nowinski, W. and Saez, F. (1970). Cell biology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Dimmock, N., Easton, A. and Leppard, K. (2001). Introduction to modern virology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.
Fensterl, V. and Sen, G.C., F. (2009). Interferons and viral infections. – PubMed – NCBI. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Finter, N. (1967). Interferons. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co.
Fishelp (n.d.) Spring viraemia. [online] [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Fowler, M. and Miller, R.E. (2008). Zoo and wild animal medicine (Sixth edition). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Gauthier, N., Fardin, M., Roca-Cusachs, P. and Sheetz, M. (2011). Temporary increase in plasma membrane tension coordinates the activation of exocytosis and contraction during cell spreading. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Gelderblom, H. (2019). Structure and Classification of Viruses. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Gordon, S. (1999). Phagocytosis. Stamford, Conn.: JAI Press.
Hammer, S. (2019). Viral Replication. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019]. (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Knipe, D. and Howley, P. (2013). Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.
Kubo, Y., Hayashi, H., Matsuyama, T., Sato, H. and Yamamoto, N. (2012). Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Le Page, C. (2000). Interferon activation and innate immunity. – PubMed – NCBI. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Lenoir, G. (1973). Structural proteins of spring viremia virus of carp. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 51(4), pp.895-899.
MacLachlan, N. and Dubovi, E. (2017). Fenner’s veterinary virology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press
Mahy, B. and Van Regenmortel, M. (2014). Desk Encyclopedia Animal and Bacterial Virology. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
Marsh, M. (2001). Endocytosis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Naik, U. (2013). Phagocytosis. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool.
Nathanson, N. (1997). Viral pathogenesis. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Regazzi, R. (2011). Molecular mechanisms of exocytosis. New York: Springer.
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Sorkin, A. and von Zastrow, M. (2010). Endocytosis and signalling: intertwining molecular networks. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
Tennant, P., Fermin, G. and Foster, J. (n.d.). Viruses. 3rd ed. London: John Fedor.
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A Personal And Professional Development Plan

I have acquired strong leadership skills demonstrated through previous work experience, being able to utilise this skill by working with young adults from diverse backgrounds, supervising their interaction with animals and their welfare whilst on work experience on a community farm. Additionally, my communication skills have been developed through various part time jobs ranging from: shop assistant to bar tender that has enabled me a chance to interact with members of the public. As a student good communication skill are essential because it gives me the confidence to vocalize well and towards members of various scientific institutions from all levels. My skills in pipetting have significantly improved; I can now practically and comfortably obtain various solutions required for lab practicals whilst avoiding any errors from materialising. Saving money has also been a crucial strength, particularly when being a student where money is in a constant shortage. This is why my wages are automatically placed into an ISA account, so it can be saved then used when necessary to do so.
Previously there was a practical lab exam which consisted of three different stations; making a solution, calibration, and Pipetting. I felt the exam didn’t go according to plan, as I felt I lacked pre-requisite knowledge and skills. Alternatively, this could be explained by my anxiety in wanting to achieve a good grade. Having passed the exam for me the most issues arose from working out a solution and calibrating a microscope. These are two areas that I feel needs further improvement as for year 2 I will be taking part in practical’s involving the use of a microscope and solution making. Referencing in a Harvard style is an area that I can ameliorate on, since I received feedback from my tutor marking my coursework who has informed me, the referencing style used throughout submitted coursework isn’t of Harvard style. Having read the feedback I now know in order to overcome this I can use a piece of software known as Zotero; a highly beneficial search engine, that is simple to use helping anyone to organize, collect, and site a particular piece of text (Kouker, n.d.) Currently I am undertaking a module; introduction to biochemistry. I have been learning about; amino acid, protein structure, and function, alongside, Amino acid- protein metabolism. However, there are certain areas of biochemistry which is hard to understand for instance, the Kjeldahl procedure; the sum of nitrogen that is found within organic/ inorganic substances. As next semester I will be taking part in a practical using the Kjeldahl method. (“A Guide To Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination Methods and Apparatus,” n.d.)
On Wednesday 27th February 2019 I attended a careers convention held within the university. I found this event to be very informative as I was able to talk to many employers who were pitching their companies ranging from the poultry industry, Sanger Institute, Animal Technician Development Programme (ATDP), and farming. One company in particular who stood out to me was P.D.HOOK; one of the largest poultry industries in the UK producing poultry for many food companies. I was very interested in this industry as the person who I was talking to was a former Writtle student, Werner Strydom who was extremely informative when asking him questions, and as a result of me maintaining a high level of professionalism I was offered the opportunity of work experience over the summer holidays. My knowledge has been further extended in talking to these various organisations, as to what I could potentially work as after completing my Bio-veterinary degree.

After completing the MSci bio-veterinary course I would like to excel myself towards post- baccalaureate professional or graduate programs. In order to achieve this goal, I must first tackle my weaknesses in order to prosper. These targets are as followed; becoming more confident towards working out a solution and calibrating a microscope. Becoming more fluent on how to use Zotero, and mastering biochemistry on the many topics that may arise from the module. These targets can be achieved by; watching tutorials on Moodle & Google, reading appropriate literature, books. PDF, websites and spending one to two hours a day rereading over lectured presentations to refresh over any new material that has been specified during the lecture or ask fellow peers who are able to help me extend my knowledge . Below I have created a Gantt- chart, where I have precisely workout out over a three-month time period starting from 11th January 2019 – 22ndMarch 2019 how I will incorporate a learning schedule on improving Pipetting, Calibration. Zotero and Biochemistry. within this time frame.

A personal and professional development plan @


A Guide To Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination Methods and Apparatus, n.d. 13.
Kouker, A., n.d. LibGuides: Zotero citation management: About Zotero [WWW Document]. URL // (accessed 2.7.19).

A critical reflection on my current understanding of maths and chemistry

At the start of university, I found my knowledge towards maths and chemistry was an aspect that needed further improvement. Three months later, I personally feel more confident about maths and chemistry. Growing in academic knowledge required for my modules; Essential laboratory techniques, and professional practice in bio- veterinary science. Although my confidence may have grown, I still feel there are still some areas within maths and chemistry that can be improved on, especially within chemistry.
Throughout this semester on some occasions, I have struggled to understand certain parts of chemistry, playing a crucial academic role towards my bio-veterinary course. One of the concepts I had discovered was that my revision could be simulated by creating an enticing poster contributing to my visual learning, as I have affectively recognized I am a visual learner. To continue. The poster can demonstrate a combination of both verbal and non-verbal content. This picturesque form of learning is known as dual coding theory (Clark JM and paivo A,1991”. RG Brereton – 1990 – Ellis Horwood Ltd. On the other hand, understanding the terms of stoichiometry, Avogadro’s constant. Balancing equations and cyclic structures are some areas of chemistry relating to bio veterinary science that I have struggled to come to terms with. In order to overcome this, I have been using a variety of different resources that compel me to an advanced pedagogical learning regime; (Jonathan Crowe 2014) chemistry for the biosciences. The book elaborates rich pedagogy towards the concepts of chemistry, demonstrating easy to understand terminology, alongside mathematical equations suitable for the bio veterinary course.
An introduction to Biomedical Science in Professional and Clinical Practice. This book elaborates biomedical Science in professional and Clinical Practice. This book is aimed at all levels, from undergraduates who maybe studying an accredited biomedical sciences BSc, graduate trainees, or experienced staff with overseas qualifications. This book has helped me identify the standards that are fundamentally important towards the health professions council for state registration when working within a laboratory environment. These rules and regulations are formed of: laws, guidelines. Governing clinical pathology, basic laboratory techniques and finally an all-round view of each pathology discipline for future reference (Sarah J. Pitt 2009).
Compendium of Chemical Terminology. This resource offers exceptional insight towards Avogadro constant especially when remembering the molar number of entities L=6.022 141 79 (30)x 1023 mol-1 (A.D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell, Oxford (1997). Article on balancing chemical equations (JH Melville – ‎1932) offers sophisticated vocabulary when trying to balance chemical equations relating to chemistry. Inelastic Behaviour of Materials and Structures Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading. The outstanding book fabricates on inelastic behaviour of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. (Holm Altenbach, Micheal Brung, 2015). Essential laboratory skills for Biosciences. This book is my essential laboratory companion. The structure of this book is of a simple and clear guide of instructions aimed at essential lab techniques. Furthermore, this book demonstrates great insight compelling the use of required equipment, alongside simple calculations that are apart of the laboratory practical’s (Mohammed Meah 2012).
Another resource that is suitable is khan academy. This resource offers beneficial insight towards chemistry, extending my knowledge on areas within chemistry that I do not understand. On the other hand, my fellow peers can help. Supporting me through a task that I am stuck on. Since some of my fellow peers have studied A level chemistry. Looking back at the first reflection on my understanding towards maths and chemistry. I created a timetable where I would be spending approximately 2-3 hours a day revising maths; using a revision timetable that involves around my social life. So far, this task has been kept to. Because of my willpower I can now correctly work out maths questions relating to the bio-veterinary course proving to be beneficial towards my career.
On the other hand, the subsequent week can be based on chemistry. Sticking to the 2-3 hours a day imitating a similar schedule used when studying maths; support from tutor, study groups. And lecture notes. Moreover, some areas in chemistry I may not feel comfortable with can be improved on by me spending extra time resisting what has been taught within my lectures. I strongly feel by me contemplating this method to my university life, my academic knowledge in chemistry will increase making me feel more positive when being confronted by tasks or equations that are a part of the chemistry lesson plan, essential towards my career within the animal industry.
So far, the bio veterinary course has offered me a fantastic opportunity where I can exhibit my own personal learning plan, supporting me through tough times where I felt necessary to go back on for instance; tasks that involve maths and chemistry. Due to me being given the chance to reflect areas of maths and chemistry, it has enabled me to identify weak points that I have struggled with, encouraging me to improve on these areas, otherwise if I didn’t reflect back on situations within maths and chemistry that I have struggled on it would fundamentally disrupt my future career plans.


Click to access 386812.pdf

Rate Of Reaction Of catalase Lab Report

Within this report, I be conducting an investigation towards the rate of reaction fabricated by catalase. This will be performed by calibrating the volume of gas generated when using hydrogen peroxide on a variety of organs; kidney, Liver. Lungs and heart, that were placed into four different test tubes. Once the samples were placed into test tubes hydrogen peroxide was added to each extract, synchronously a thick white foam should be simultaneously formed with me measuring this result immediately, taking into consideration this is witnessed using a systematic time frame of two minutes; where the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide occurs at the same rate in all cells (S Nguyen 2012). Sequentially producing a thick foam indicating that catalase is breaking down hydrogen peroxide. This is caused by biological catalysts commonly known as enzymes; a protein molecule, each containing a specific amino acid that acts a biological catalyst (Ophardt, 2003.). A catalyst is a substance which increases the process of a chemical reaction; correspondingly, enzymes speed up a chemical reaction (Clark, 2002). An enzyme can fabricate this ability by plummeting its activation energy, the initial quantity of energy needed to start a chemical reaction (Reece and Urry etc.2008). Without enzymes, processes of life would be too slow, and cells would die.
All enzymes accommodate an active site where the activity of an enzyme occurs, materialising only one substrate, the reactant an enzyme is acted upon, instantly fits into the shape of the active site (PK Robinson – ‎2015). The finickiest of an enzyme is due to a harmonious fit between the shape of its active site and the shape of the substrate. Therefore, the shape plays an analytical role in dignifying which chemical reaction will occur. Moreover. Enzymes are held together by weak hydrogen bonds that conspicuously manufactures the shape of the enzyme-substrate complexes (J Trylska – ‎2004). Biological factors for instance; temperature and PH levels can potentially break the hydrogen bonds, altering the shape or inactivating the chemical reaction.
Enzymes are vital; they break down some of the most harmful by-products of some cellular reactions. An exemplary example is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) a precarious by-product of respiration and is made in all living cells. Inevitably, it is commonly located in the liver. This is because; the liver has an enzyme called catalase which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Step by step- guide of what is required for practical
1) Weigh 1 gram of one of the animal body organs provided
2) Add a tissue sample to a test tube. By using the glass rod ensure it reaches the bottom of the tube.
3) Use a pipette to measure out 2cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution.
4) Pour the hydrogen peroxide solution into the test tube and immediately put the gas syringe bung on the end of the test tube, at the same time, start the stopwatch.
5) Bubbles should start to rise-up the tube and the gas syringe will move outwards. Measure the volume of gas produced in two minutes
6) If the gas syringe passes the 20cm3 mark, stop the stopwatch and note the elapsed time down to the nearest 1/10th of a second.
7) Repeat the experiment three times so that you can work out an average of the amount of gas produced by the syringe.
8) Repeat the experiment with the other organs.
Above is a list explaining a step- by- step guide of what is suitable for this practical; hydrogen peroxide, micropipette and micropipette tips. Test tubes alongside a test tube rack. A glass rod, scalpel, and a gas syringe bung which is connected to a gas syringe. Stopwatch, weighing boat and finally the specimens that will be tested on. To continue, once the apparatus had been collected, I then proceed to weigh approximately one gram of my selected choice of animal organs; using a weighing boat, by making a small incision; then simply removing a small piece of tissue from the whole organ that was then placed into the balance. After I manged to achieve one gram, the tissue sample was then inserted into a test tube, where I then used a glass rod to push the sample down to the bottom. Moreover, I had to effectively measure a 2cm3 amount of hydrogen peroxide solution using a micropipette. Furthermore, I then carefully poured the hydrogen peroxide solution directly into the test tube, without any hesitation placing the bung brisk- fully on the end of the test tube. The test tube itself was attached to a glass syringe, expeditiously I started the stopwatch that had been set with the control variable of two minutes. Once the two minutes had exceeded itself, I simultaneously recorded the volume of has generated.
Results/ Analysis
The table below demonstrates the recordings of volume of gas produced by different organs in two minutes.
Organ 1 2 3 Average (Ml3)
liver 13 16 13.5 14.2
Lungs 6 7 17 10
Heart 5 4 5 4.7
Kidney 20 20 20 20

From looking at the results, it is clearly highlighted the kidney produced the highest amount of volume. This result was of unanticipated nature simply because, the kidneys perform many crucial functions that consists of: maintaining overall fluid balance, regulating and filtering minerals from blood. Filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances. Creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure. Alongside many more functions (Jaiphul N. (n.d.). Kidneys.)
On the other hand, a key factor as to why the kidney contained the highest quantity of volume, is due to peroxisomes; are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation (Vasko R12016) To continue, the crucial peroxisomal task is hydrogen peroxide turnover. This would be a good indicator
as to why the kidney scored the highest amount of volume as there is a numerous summation of hydrogen peroxide circulating in the blood. (Forman et al, 2016) Fundamentally, this inconclusive result may possibly have been precipitated by the specimen. Since we used various parts of the kidney, with each part having diverse level of catalase present. Moreover, cross commination could presumably be responsible for this result.
Equally peroxisomes are found within the liver. Because of the liver containing a conterminous number of peroxisomes the liver scored the second highest volume of oxygen produced. Controversially the liver should have exhibited the highest volume; due to catalase being most plentiful internally in the liver. (Demori et al., (2006) and Moyà et al., 2008) To continue. An explanation to this result could be down to unintentional error. To improve, the experiment should be repeated more than twice, where I’ll personally take a more meticulous route to avoid any errors from occurring for instance: cross contamination, extracting a sample from the same extraction site, and when pouring the hydrogen peroxide solution, as a delay could deterrent my results. The results obtained from the three liver samples should have conspicuously demonstrated a far more elevated amount of volume produced, therefore becoming first place.
The purpose of this investigation was to contrast and compare the difference in cellular metabolism of different organs on the production of the enzyme catalase. An enzyme needs certain conditions to function correctly, alongside a suitable environment (Bennett, T. P., and Frieden, E 1969). Highlighting as to where the enzyme usually works within the body. Furthermore. Because different body tissues have distinct environments- acidic or warmth. Overall this implicates how each enzyme can work best under the specific conditions. The experiment indicated that catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide the quickest in the kidney when compared to the other organ’s; Liver. Lungs and heart. On the other hand, the liver should have produced the highest amount of volume due to the liver containing a high number of catalase.

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Academic review on the importance of osmosis

Osmosis in animals requires mechanisms crucial for the regulation of quantity and concentration of water inside the body including their cells C.W. Bourque. Many cells, tissues, and organs of animals depend on osmosis, as the movement of fluids is called in biology. The urge of regulating volume of water is inherently clear. All animals have a finite volume with accumulation of increased water, abruptly disorientating the dimensions of tissues and organs to harbour this growth volume. (Timothy j, Bradley 2009).
On the other hand, if water is in a dismal quantity in an animal that is domestic and livestock, exotic, or equally a wild animal; where water is lost to the environment; body volume will plummet until physiological functions for instance; circulation, respiration and locomotion are catastrophically affected. Chapman et al., 2017
To continue, another critical importance about osmosis is the capacity of water, acting as a solvent; significant for structure and function of proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acid. Water is a key factor of life which every living organism needs in order to survive. Khan et al., 2007 .
One animal species which relies on osmosis is the Atlantic salmon. To continue, Atlantic salmon are known as an anadramous salmonid; their life cycle initials living both freshwater and seawater. (McCormick, 2013). The reason why Atlantic salmon lay their eggs in fresh water is because; there are fewer predators that could potentially eat the juveniles (Stefansson et al., 2008).
Juvenile salmon now known as Parr will grow to a certain size; instantly beginning the morphological process known as smoltification; a behavioural and physiological evolution that Atlantic salmon go through to prepare for life in sea water (Sundell & Sundh, 2012).
Fresh water and sea water are two different osmotic environments. Atlantic salmon are hyperosmotic when in fresh water; because of osmotic force, causing water to passively entre the fish. During this process, ions are lost to the environment. Unfortunately, Atlantic salmon in fresh water have a low drinking rate as there is no requirement to absorb more water (Sundell & Sundh., 2012).
Osmoregulation is critically beneficial for homeostasis in fish. Slight changes in the ionic concentration of the water can play havoc towards reproduction, growth, stress. Even in some rare occasions interfering with the survival of a fish (Almeida et al., 2013).
In sea water Atlantic salmon are hypoosmotic. Furthermore, because of the osmotic forces over all epithelia, Atlantic salmon are frequently losing water. On the other hand, gaining various amounts of ions. Atlantic salmon then must increase their drinking rate equally increasing the absorption of water by the uptake of NaCl within the intestine. NaCl is instantly directed against the concentration gradient (Grosell., 2011). This is then excreted across the gills within two crucial osmoregulatory tissues, intestine and gills. Fluid intake alongside excretion of addition ions is considerably an energy burdensome task, relying on the conveyance of NaCl against their electrochemical gradient.
Within mammals, it is a natural requirement to intake water; maintaining fluid osmosis and electrolyte homeostasis Prager-Khoutorsky and Bourque, 2015). In Mice, optogenetic stimulation of the glutamatergic neurons enforces water consumption, equally; optogenetic stimulation of neurons located within the same region reduces water consumption Zardetto-Smith et al., 1993; These specific neurons overlap regions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and hindbrain which are more extensive compared to neurons that originate from the subfornical organ. Highlighting, optogenetic stimulation is a key link supporting regulation of drinking responses relating to osmosis.

Osmotic concentration and volume can potentially have disastrous physiological effects. A good example of this can be observed within mammals E. Satinoff, R.A. Prosser the animal has injured themselves who is then suffering from a serious injury. A various amount of blood is lost until the body begins to produce platelet cells; causing the blood to clot simultaneously making the wound seal up; preventing any further fluid loss.
To continue, osmotic concentration in the form of extracellular fluids would remain the same. On the other hand, volume of extracellular fluids most fundamentally the blood, instantly becoming reduced below the average physiological value T.J. Stachniak, E. Trudel, C.W. Bourque. The biggest remonstration for the animal is too ascertain the lost blood volume taking into consideration, obtaining suitable osmotic regulation.
Sweat and saliva can be factors affecting osmotic concentration Br J Dermatol, 178 (2017). Modulated by the autonomic nervous system, a largest amount of regulated water loss takes place within the kidney. This is where water reabsorption within urine is identified by the concentration of vasopressin. m J Physiol Renal Physiol, 311 (2016).
Reverse osmosis can influence growth and nutrient utilization. For instance, calves require drinking water essential for their metabolism, alongside there wellbeing. A moderate amount of water intake is needed for optimal growth. (Chapman et al., 2017). Internally water plays a part of maintaining thermoregulation, osmoregulation within young calves. Senevirathne et al. (2016)
When looking back at Atlantic salmon. It has been hypothesized early maturation of Atlantic salmon potentially leads to osmoregulatory problems. Past investigations have highlighted that permeability of the intestine is increased within mature Atlantic salmon (Sundh et al., unpublished) Because of this it initially becomes harder to uphold a high osmotic gradient.
Body fluid homeostasis is highly challenged by the absence of water intake during the sleep period This increases the electrical activity of neurons towards the end of the active period promoting anticipatory water intake, creating a reserve. On the other hand, because of this biological process it instantly increases the activity of neurons towards the end of sleep period. Maximizing the quantity of water reabsorption by the kidney E. Trudel, C.W. Bourque Nat Neurosci, 13 (2010).


Click to access 8228.full.pdf
Grosell M. 2011. Intestinal anion exchange in marine teleosts is involved in osmoregulation and contributes to the oceanic inorganic carbon cycle. Acta Physiol, 202, 421-434.
Sundell KS, Sundh H. 2012. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous samonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins. Aquatic Phyiology, Volume 3, Article 388.
uprachiasmatic nuclear lesions eliminate circadian rhythms of drinking and activity, but not of body temperature, in male rats
J Biol Rhythms, 3 (1988), pp. 1-22

E. Trudel, C.W. BourqueCentral clock excites vasopressin neurons by waking osmosensory afferents during late sleep