Reflection on the results of a research skills test.

Though I am self-assured in my descriptive statistics question, entering data, accessing statistics. Writing conclusions and drawing and labelling graphs, are areas I want to progress more. When answering the statistics question during my sector studies exam, I was able to use my familiarity gained from previous tests to apply a strong academic answer, which I know was effective since receiving feedback through email from my tutor.
Within the exam I found some of the questions unfair for instance, I had to name different research websites which put me at a disadvantage as I wasn’t expecting a question in that form to be a part of the exam. As a result, I found it challenging to write an answer to the question, which was throughout the exam from start to finish in different questions. Prior to the exam, the head lecture who was in charge of sector studies gave me guidance throughout the course and even organizing extra support sessions, which provided me more sureness as I felt encouraged to complete the task.
However, upon seeing the amount of comments on my first practice paper, I felt disheartened. But after I had looked over them, I realised these results are all positive inclusions towards the goal of success. It reminded me that while I was able to do really well on the descriptive statistics question, I need to develop my entering data, writing conclusions and drawing and labelling graphs skills further, as in next semester those skills will be a part of my module nutritional biochemistry.
I am very interested in developing my skills on areas in sector studies where I am not at my strongest, and so using the notes from my lecturer I can take the outcome from the exam on board and create a plan to improve on areas where I’m not so effective at, by using a method known as Cornell method. Originated from united states of America University. This strategy gets me thinking about what I have learned during my semester, by writing down key information from my lecture then summarizing the content being revised (Duyga centingoz, 2010).
Each day I will spend 3-5 hours going over topics that I feel less confident in, designing flash cards that will have written on them key terms from the subject area I need to remember. asking for extra support from fellow peers or using literature from the library that has suitable information to excel my knowledge. A good book to use would be probability and statistics by (Spiegel, Schiller and Srinivasan, 2013) This book goes into good detail explaining the problems I am bound to see during my undergraduate degree. The book explains how link and probability are connected and how to understand statistical or probability outputs.
I found the Cornell method the best way of revising because, I had to remember different methods for working out results, for me to then explain what the results show for example the mean; highest recorded data takeaway the lowest recorded data. The median; is a statistic method used for splitting the higher group of numbers from the lower group of numbers from data points that have the values above or below the median value (Manikandan S. 2011) ∑ represents sum of total numbers used in the same concept as the mean when working out the total amount of how many numbers there are; 6,8,9,3,2,0,10 the answer would be 38 as this is the total of all the figures added together.
But next year I plan to change it because I feel it would be beneficial to change how I approach revision using a different method known as select elect. Is another revision technique that will be effective for my development in learning. The method gets me to think about my revision by choosing the best from a chosen revision subject, facts ideas or terms. Prioritizes information which is the most important knowledge, ideas and concepts I need for future examinations. This technique leads me to engage with my syllabus material whilst being aware of what would be the most useful information I need to remember (Zhang, 2016).
Fundamentals in bio-veterinary science have shown me how much of my scientific knowledge I need to improve on. While I feel conformable talking about acid, bases, and buffers. Scientific notation and chemical nomenclature. Osmosis, homeostasis, and stoichiometry are areas that I feel less positive towards, and as a result has led to assignments within fundamentals not achieving the grades that I desire. Learning from my assignments I can now create a plan looking over my comments from tutors which I can then evaluate from to improve on future assignments within those subject areas.

Duyga centingoz, 2010 university students learning processes of note-taking strategies procedia-social and behavioural sciences volume 2 issue 2 pages 4098-4108 Available from
Manikandan S. Measures of central tendency: Median and mode. J Pharmacol Pharmacother [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 May 24];2:214-5. Available from:

Spiegel, M., Schiller, J. and Srinivasan, R. (2013). Probability and statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill.4th edition.
Zhang, L. (2016). Believability Relations for Select-Direct Sentential Revision. Studia Logica, [online] 105(1), pp.37-63. Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2019].

Understanding of cellular processes that could be used to determine how pathogens act

A virus can be compared to an intruder or a thief, and that is because viruses are not cells (Mateu, 2013) They do not really need a nucleus and they would not need a cytoplasm or a membrane to protect them (ScienceDaily, 2019,). Viruses are not formed in the same way most cells are. Viruses mostly break inside a host cell for the purpose of using the hosts cell’s enzymes and organelles which the virus requires in order to reproduce (De Robertis, Nowinski and Saez, 1970). Therefore, a virus can be known as an intracellular parasite (Dimmock, Easton and Leppard, 2001) Since viruses are not formed in the same way most cells are, a virus can only reproduce by invading a host cell where their genome is a material of nucleic acid that can be DNA or RNA (Gelderblom, 2019) which goes onto to reproduce internally within living cells in a process known as viral replication (Hammer, 2019) and have the adaption of their biological system, which can transport the synthesis that belongs to specialized particles known as the virion, which itself houses the viral genome (Knipe and Howley, 2013, Fields of virology), and then directs it towards many cells within the body. This then increases their pathogenic outcome of transmission (Nathanson, 1997, Viral Pathogenesis) as the virus is able to spread their genome sequence from an infected host to another that is unaffected (Tennant, Fermin and Foster, n.d.). Carp may be the most prized fish species in the world, due to the various varieties of carp that are widely available, becoming a highly regarded fish by many people, who pay large sums of money for them. However, these valuable carp often become diseased. This report will look at cellular processes in carp and how they relate to pathogens. However, it will not look at treatments for carp diseases.
Carp virus
One of the biggest pathogenic killers is spring carp viremia virus (SVCV) (see plate 1) a cytopathic virus that is related to the Rhabdoviridae family (Ashraf U, 2019) a variation of vesiculovirus that causes febrile systemic infection affecting a large quantity of cyprid species (MacLachlan and Dubovi, 2017) SVCV is common within the regions of Europe and can be found within serval other regions that includes United states and China (Fowler and Miller, 2008) SVCV pandemics have been reported to cause some serious losses to the carp population (, 2019) Common carp are much more vulnerable of getting the deadly disease (, 2019) which mostly affects the fish throughout springtime. The possible explanation for this would be because, average water temperatures during those months are generally between 100c to 170c. This is the perfect temperature for SVCV to prosper (Ahne , 2002). However, if the temperature of the water is higher, carp carrying the virus begin to produce immune response antigens, which help combat the SVCV. The antigens then make the fish immune to the SVCV (, n.d) Carp pick up the virus from actually eating the faeces and urine made by fish carrying the virus. However, in the carp’s environment there will be blood sucking leeches as well as the carp louse which are parasites that too are carries of the SVCV coming under the category of mechanical vector (, n.d))
Virus description
The SVCV pathogen can be known when examined under a microscope, due to its distinguishable rod and otherwise bullet shaped attribute (, 2019). Every strand of SVCV houses a negative strand of RNA genome (Mahy and Van Regenmortel, 2014). On the other hand, the sequencing RNA ultimately requires instructions to construct the five proteins nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and the large polymerase protein (Lenoir, 1973) The five proteins are required for the transference of the SVCV, as the virus uses the proteins as hosts in order to affect healthy unaffected cells (Wei et al., 2016). It then uses the infested protein to spread from one place to another within the body. The SVCV virus is restricted to a certain quantity of hosts cells. The virus can do this by acting as a lock and key fit that wedges amongst the proteins on the outside of the virus and then the receptor molecules on the host’s surface (De Robertis, Nowinski and Saez, 1970). Only the nucleoprotein is connected to viral RNA, which helps in the configuration of nucleocapsid shaping and virus assembly morphing. The matrix protein collects pathogen and it then has the ability to alternate the pathogens structure (Zhang et al., 2009). Glycoprotein is a part of viral endocytosis (Vogt et al., 2005).The SVCV G protein, a viral protein present on the gene encoding surface has the power to design trimeric peplomers and activates cellular signalling pathways which goes onto beginning the process of viral endocytosis making SVCV G protein the central point of vigilant counteracting antibodies. (Sorkin and von Zastrow, 2010). Endocytosis is a form of active transport that shifts molecules like organelles, cell pieces and even other whole cells into a different individual cell (Marsh, 2001).

Plate 1 SVCV Diseased carp (Fishelp, n.d)
Endocytosis appears in many different variations; however, all share a common similarity to the cell’s plasma bilayer, by developing a pocket around all of the target particles (Kubo et al., 2012). Once the pocket has successfully wrapped itself around the developing pocket, the pocket then pinches off leaving behind just one molecule which then gets encapsulated within a newly assembled intracellular membrane. This is known as pinocytosis (La Bella, 1973). Alternatively, there is the opposite process, where materials get placed inside a cell. This process is known as exocytosis (Regazzi, 2011). Material gets dislodged from the cell moving towards the extracellular fluid where the waste material gets enfolded within a membrane that then fuses in the inside of the plasma membrane (Gauthier et al., 2011).The whole fusion process causes the membrane envelope to unlock from the outside of the cell, which then causes the waste material to get ejected directly into the extracellular space.

For SVCV to colonize by spreading from one cell to the next, duplicating as it goes, which increases the variety of the virus. SVCV needs to take over the active site. The virus has one obstacle that prevents it from taking over the active site. IFN referred to as an interferon are proteins produced by cells when endanger from being taken over from viral infection (GC, 2009). Interferons are part of the non-specific immune system that only become active when being stimulated to a response (Le Page C, 2000) The main function of an interferon is to tamper with any intracellular pathogen that chooses to intrude a host cell which the virus causes the host cell to produce antiviral response.
Cells which have been invaded by the SVCV will be recognized by the immune response, which act’s on trying to prevent SVCV from replicating inside one cell then transferring to the next by using a biological process known as phagocytosis (Naik, 2013). A cellular process that is crucial for the removal of pathogens. It does this by engulfing of solid particles performed by the cell membrane, which then gets broken down by enzymes and then absorbed by cells (Gordon, 1999). Phagocytosis is a key stage used for the removal of pathogens and cell debris. On the other hand, SVCV has evolved a tactic to defeat interferon response. SVCV does this by invading a host cell in response to the invasion of SVCV. The invaded cell will send out a signal known as the retinotic acid enzyme inhibitor, which can be termed RIG-1 (Matsumiya, 2011). This gene acts as another line of defence to safeguard the cell by acknowledging harmful viruses only after the virus itself has been located. A immediate response will be sent out which effectively activates for the production of interferons produced from the immune response (Finter, 1967).
Fish that are unfortunate enough to have the virus will demonstrate signs such as petechial haemorrhage causing a serious problem towards the skin, gills, eyes and most vital organs. In addition, other negative consequences of SVCV usually involve gill deterioration, inflamed and solid hard spleen, hepatic necrosis enteritis and pericarditis (Aphis, 2004)

Ahne, W. et al., 2002. Spring viremia of carp (SVC). Diseases of aquatic organisms. Available at: [Accessed April 25, 2019].
APHIS, Veterinary Services. (2004). Questions and answers on spring viremia of carp for producers. Riverdale, MD: APHIS, Veterinary Services.
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Chiu, W., Johnson, J. and Chiu, W. (2003). Virus Structure. Burlington: Elsevier (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
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Dimmock, N., Easton, A. and Leppard, K. (2001). Introduction to modern virology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.
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Fowler, M. and Miller, R.E. (2008). Zoo and wild animal medicine (Sixth edition). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
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Knipe, D. and Howley, P. (2013). Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.
Kubo, Y., Hayashi, H., Matsuyama, T., Sato, H. and Yamamoto, N. (2012). Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Apr. 2019].
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Lenoir, G. (1973). Structural proteins of spring viremia virus of carp. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 51(4), pp.895-899.
MacLachlan, N. and Dubovi, E. (2017). Fenner’s veterinary virology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press
Mahy, B. and Van Regenmortel, M. (2014). Desk Encyclopedia Animal and Bacterial Virology. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
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Naik, U. (2013). Phagocytosis. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool.
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Regazzi, R. (2011). Molecular mechanisms of exocytosis. New York: Springer.
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Tennant, P., Fermin, G. and Foster, J. (n.d.). Viruses. 3rd ed. London: John Fedor.
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A Personal And Professional Development Plan

I have acquired strong leadership skills demonstrated through previous work experience, being able to utilise this skill by working with young adults from diverse backgrounds, supervising their interaction with animals and their welfare whilst on work experience on a community farm. Additionally, my communication skills have been developed through various part time jobs ranging from: shop assistant to bar tender that has enabled me a chance to interact with members of the public. As a student good communication skill are essential because it gives me the confidence to vocalize well and towards members of various scientific institutions from all levels. My skills in pipetting have significantly improved; I can now practically and comfortably obtain various solutions required for lab practicals whilst avoiding any errors from materialising. Saving money has also been a crucial strength, particularly when being a student where money is in a constant shortage. This is why my wages are automatically placed into an ISA account, so it can be saved then used when necessary to do so.
Previously there was a practical lab exam which consisted of three different stations; making a solution, calibration, and Pipetting. I felt the exam didn’t go according to plan, as I felt I lacked pre-requisite knowledge and skills. Alternatively, this could be explained by my anxiety in wanting to achieve a good grade. Having passed the exam for me the most issues arose from working out a solution and calibrating a microscope. These are two areas that I feel needs further improvement as for year 2 I will be taking part in practical’s involving the use of a microscope and solution making. Referencing in a Harvard style is an area that I can ameliorate on, since I received feedback from my tutor marking my coursework who has informed me, the referencing style used throughout submitted coursework isn’t of Harvard style. Having read the feedback I now know in order to overcome this I can use a piece of software known as Zotero; a highly beneficial search engine, that is simple to use helping anyone to organize, collect, and site a particular piece of text (Kouker, n.d.) Currently I am undertaking a module; introduction to biochemistry. I have been learning about; amino acid, protein structure, and function, alongside, Amino acid- protein metabolism. However, there are certain areas of biochemistry which is hard to understand for instance, the Kjeldahl procedure; the sum of nitrogen that is found within organic/ inorganic substances. As next semester I will be taking part in a practical using the Kjeldahl method. (“A Guide To Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination Methods and Apparatus,” n.d.)
On Wednesday 27th February 2019 I attended a careers convention held within the university. I found this event to be very informative as I was able to talk to many employers who were pitching their companies ranging from the poultry industry, Sanger Institute, Animal Technician Development Programme (ATDP), and farming. One company in particular who stood out to me was P.D.HOOK; one of the largest poultry industries in the UK producing poultry for many food companies. I was very interested in this industry as the person who I was talking to was a former Writtle student, Werner Strydom who was extremely informative when asking him questions, and as a result of me maintaining a high level of professionalism I was offered the opportunity of work experience over the summer holidays. My knowledge has been further extended in talking to these various organisations, as to what I could potentially work as after completing my Bio-veterinary degree.

After completing the MSci bio-veterinary course I would like to excel myself towards post- baccalaureate professional or graduate programs. In order to achieve this goal, I must first tackle my weaknesses in order to prosper. These targets are as followed; becoming more confident towards working out a solution and calibrating a microscope. Becoming more fluent on how to use Zotero, and mastering biochemistry on the many topics that may arise from the module. These targets can be achieved by; watching tutorials on Moodle & Google, reading appropriate literature, books. PDF, websites and spending one to two hours a day rereading over lectured presentations to refresh over any new material that has been specified during the lecture or ask fellow peers who are able to help me extend my knowledge . Below I have created a Gantt- chart, where I have precisely workout out over a three-month time period starting from 11th January 2019 – 22ndMarch 2019 how I will incorporate a learning schedule on improving Pipetting, Calibration. Zotero and Biochemistry. within this time frame.

A personal and professional development plan @


A Guide To Kjeldahl Nitrogen Determination Methods and Apparatus, n.d. 13.
Kouker, A., n.d. LibGuides: Zotero citation management: About Zotero [WWW Document]. URL // (accessed 2.7.19).

A critical reflection on my current understanding of maths and chemistry

At the start of university, I found my knowledge towards maths and chemistry was an aspect that needed further improvement. Three months later, I personally feel more confident about maths and chemistry. Growing in academic knowledge required for my modules; Essential laboratory techniques, and professional practice in bio- veterinary science. Although my confidence may have grown, I still feel there are still some areas within maths and chemistry that can be improved on, especially within chemistry.
Throughout this semester on some occasions, I have struggled to understand certain parts of chemistry, playing a crucial academic role towards my bio-veterinary course. One of the concepts I had discovered was that my revision could be simulated by creating an enticing poster contributing to my visual learning, as I have affectively recognized I am a visual learner. To continue. The poster can demonstrate a combination of both verbal and non-verbal content. This picturesque form of learning is known as dual coding theory (Clark JM and paivo A,1991”. RG Brereton – 1990 – Ellis Horwood Ltd. On the other hand, understanding the terms of stoichiometry, Avogadro’s constant. Balancing equations and cyclic structures are some areas of chemistry relating to bio veterinary science that I have struggled to come to terms with. In order to overcome this, I have been using a variety of different resources that compel me to an advanced pedagogical learning regime; (Jonathan Crowe 2014) chemistry for the biosciences. The book elaborates rich pedagogy towards the concepts of chemistry, demonstrating easy to understand terminology, alongside mathematical equations suitable for the bio veterinary course.
An introduction to Biomedical Science in Professional and Clinical Practice. This book elaborates biomedical Science in professional and Clinical Practice. This book is aimed at all levels, from undergraduates who maybe studying an accredited biomedical sciences BSc, graduate trainees, or experienced staff with overseas qualifications. This book has helped me identify the standards that are fundamentally important towards the health professions council for state registration when working within a laboratory environment. These rules and regulations are formed of: laws, guidelines. Governing clinical pathology, basic laboratory techniques and finally an all-round view of each pathology discipline for future reference (Sarah J. Pitt 2009).
Compendium of Chemical Terminology. This resource offers exceptional insight towards Avogadro constant especially when remembering the molar number of entities L=6.022 141 79 (30)x 1023 mol-1 (A.D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell, Oxford (1997). Article on balancing chemical equations (JH Melville – ‎1932) offers sophisticated vocabulary when trying to balance chemical equations relating to chemistry. Inelastic Behaviour of Materials and Structures Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading. The outstanding book fabricates on inelastic behaviour of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. (Holm Altenbach, Micheal Brung, 2015). Essential laboratory skills for Biosciences. This book is my essential laboratory companion. The structure of this book is of a simple and clear guide of instructions aimed at essential lab techniques. Furthermore, this book demonstrates great insight compelling the use of required equipment, alongside simple calculations that are apart of the laboratory practical’s (Mohammed Meah 2012).
Another resource that is suitable is khan academy. This resource offers beneficial insight towards chemistry, extending my knowledge on areas within chemistry that I do not understand. On the other hand, my fellow peers can help. Supporting me through a task that I am stuck on. Since some of my fellow peers have studied A level chemistry. Looking back at the first reflection on my understanding towards maths and chemistry. I created a timetable where I would be spending approximately 2-3 hours a day revising maths; using a revision timetable that involves around my social life. So far, this task has been kept to. Because of my willpower I can now correctly work out maths questions relating to the bio-veterinary course proving to be beneficial towards my career.
On the other hand, the subsequent week can be based on chemistry. Sticking to the 2-3 hours a day imitating a similar schedule used when studying maths; support from tutor, study groups. And lecture notes. Moreover, some areas in chemistry I may not feel comfortable with can be improved on by me spending extra time resisting what has been taught within my lectures. I strongly feel by me contemplating this method to my university life, my academic knowledge in chemistry will increase making me feel more positive when being confronted by tasks or equations that are a part of the chemistry lesson plan, essential towards my career within the animal industry.
So far, the bio veterinary course has offered me a fantastic opportunity where I can exhibit my own personal learning plan, supporting me through tough times where I felt necessary to go back on for instance; tasks that involve maths and chemistry. Due to me being given the chance to reflect areas of maths and chemistry, it has enabled me to identify weak points that I have struggled with, encouraging me to improve on these areas, otherwise if I didn’t reflect back on situations within maths and chemistry that I have struggled on it would fundamentally disrupt my future career plans.


Rate Of Reaction Of catalase Lab Report

Within this report, I be conducting an investigation towards the rate of reaction fabricated by catalase. This will be performed by calibrating the volume of gas generated when using hydrogen peroxide on a variety of organs; kidney, Liver. Lungs and heart, that were placed into four different test tubes. Once the samples were placed into test tubes hydrogen peroxide was added to each extract, synchronously a thick white foam should be simultaneously formed with me measuring this result immediately, taking into consideration this is witnessed using a systematic time frame of two minutes; where the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide occurs at the same rate in all cells (S Nguyen 2012). Sequentially producing a thick foam indicating that catalase is breaking down hydrogen peroxide. This is caused by biological catalysts commonly known as enzymes; a protein molecule, each containing a specific amino acid that acts a biological catalyst (Ophardt, 2003.). A catalyst is a substance which increases the process of a chemical reaction; correspondingly, enzymes speed up a chemical reaction (Clark, 2002). An enzyme can fabricate this ability by plummeting its activation energy, the initial quantity of energy needed to start a chemical reaction (Reece and Urry etc.2008). Without enzymes, processes of life would be too slow, and cells would die.
All enzymes accommodate an active site where the activity of an enzyme occurs, materialising only one substrate, the reactant an enzyme is acted upon, instantly fits into the shape of the active site (PK Robinson – ‎2015). The finickiest of an enzyme is due to a harmonious fit between the shape of its active site and the shape of the substrate. Therefore, the shape plays an analytical role in dignifying which chemical reaction will occur. Moreover. Enzymes are held together by weak hydrogen bonds that conspicuously manufactures the shape of the enzyme-substrate complexes (J Trylska – ‎2004). Biological factors for instance; temperature and PH levels can potentially break the hydrogen bonds, altering the shape or inactivating the chemical reaction.
Enzymes are vital; they break down some of the most harmful by-products of some cellular reactions. An exemplary example is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) a precarious by-product of respiration and is made in all living cells. Inevitably, it is commonly located in the liver. This is because; the liver has an enzyme called catalase which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Step by step- guide of what is required for practical
1) Weigh 1 gram of one of the animal body organs provided
2) Add a tissue sample to a test tube. By using the glass rod ensure it reaches the bottom of the tube.
3) Use a pipette to measure out 2cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution.
4) Pour the hydrogen peroxide solution into the test tube and immediately put the gas syringe bung on the end of the test tube, at the same time, start the stopwatch.
5) Bubbles should start to rise-up the tube and the gas syringe will move outwards. Measure the volume of gas produced in two minutes
6) If the gas syringe passes the 20cm3 mark, stop the stopwatch and note the elapsed time down to the nearest 1/10th of a second.
7) Repeat the experiment three times so that you can work out an average of the amount of gas produced by the syringe.
8) Repeat the experiment with the other organs.
Above is a list explaining a step- by- step guide of what is suitable for this practical; hydrogen peroxide, micropipette and micropipette tips. Test tubes alongside a test tube rack. A glass rod, scalpel, and a gas syringe bung which is connected to a gas syringe. Stopwatch, weighing boat and finally the specimens that will be tested on. To continue, once the apparatus had been collected, I then proceed to weigh approximately one gram of my selected choice of animal organs; using a weighing boat, by making a small incision; then simply removing a small piece of tissue from the whole organ that was then placed into the balance. After I manged to achieve one gram, the tissue sample was then inserted into a test tube, where I then used a glass rod to push the sample down to the bottom. Moreover, I had to effectively measure a 2cm3 amount of hydrogen peroxide solution using a micropipette. Furthermore, I then carefully poured the hydrogen peroxide solution directly into the test tube, without any hesitation placing the bung brisk- fully on the end of the test tube. The test tube itself was attached to a glass syringe, expeditiously I started the stopwatch that had been set with the control variable of two minutes. Once the two minutes had exceeded itself, I simultaneously recorded the volume of has generated.
Results/ Analysis
The table below demonstrates the recordings of volume of gas produced by different organs in two minutes.
Organ 1 2 3 Average (Ml3)
liver 13 16 13.5 14.2
Lungs 6 7 17 10
Heart 5 4 5 4.7
Kidney 20 20 20 20

From looking at the results, it is clearly highlighted the kidney produced the highest amount of volume. This result was of unanticipated nature simply because, the kidneys perform many crucial functions that consists of: maintaining overall fluid balance, regulating and filtering minerals from blood. Filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances. Creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure. Alongside many more functions (Jaiphul N. (n.d.). Kidneys.)
On the other hand, a key factor as to why the kidney contained the highest quantity of volume, is due to peroxisomes; are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation (Vasko R12016) To continue, the crucial peroxisomal task is hydrogen peroxide turnover. This would be a good indicator
as to why the kidney scored the highest amount of volume as there is a numerous summation of hydrogen peroxide circulating in the blood. (Forman et al, 2016) Fundamentally, this inconclusive result may possibly have been precipitated by the specimen. Since we used various parts of the kidney, with each part having diverse level of catalase present. Moreover, cross commination could presumably be responsible for this result.
Equally peroxisomes are found within the liver. Because of the liver containing a conterminous number of peroxisomes the liver scored the second highest volume of oxygen produced. Controversially the liver should have exhibited the highest volume; due to catalase being most plentiful internally in the liver. (Demori et al., (2006) and Moyà et al., 2008) To continue. An explanation to this result could be down to unintentional error. To improve, the experiment should be repeated more than twice, where I’ll personally take a more meticulous route to avoid any errors from occurring for instance: cross contamination, extracting a sample from the same extraction site, and when pouring the hydrogen peroxide solution, as a delay could deterrent my results. The results obtained from the three liver samples should have conspicuously demonstrated a far more elevated amount of volume produced, therefore becoming first place.
The purpose of this investigation was to contrast and compare the difference in cellular metabolism of different organs on the production of the enzyme catalase. An enzyme needs certain conditions to function correctly, alongside a suitable environment (Bennett, T. P., and Frieden, E 1969). Highlighting as to where the enzyme usually works within the body. Furthermore. Because different body tissues have distinct environments- acidic or warmth. Overall this implicates how each enzyme can work best under the specific conditions. The experiment indicated that catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide the quickest in the kidney when compared to the other organ’s; Liver. Lungs and heart. On the other hand, the liver should have produced the highest amount of volume due to the liver containing a high number of catalase.

Academic review on the importance of osmosis

Osmosis in animals requires mechanisms crucial for the regulation of quantity and concentration of water inside the body including their cells C.W. Bourque. Many cells, tissues, and organs of animals depend on osmosis, as the movement of fluids is called in biology. The urge of regulating volume of water is inherently clear. All animals have a finite volume with accumulation of increased water, abruptly disorientating the dimensions of tissues and organs to harbour this growth volume. (Timothy j, Bradley 2009).
On the other hand, if water is in a dismal quantity in an animal that is domestic and livestock, exotic, or equally a wild animal; where water is lost to the environment; body volume will plummet until physiological functions for instance; circulation, respiration and locomotion are catastrophically affected. Chapman et al., 2017
To continue, another critical importance about osmosis is the capacity of water, acting as a solvent; significant for structure and function of proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acid. Water is a key factor of life which every living organism needs in order to survive. Khan et al., 2007 .
One animal species which relies on osmosis is the Atlantic salmon. To continue, Atlantic salmon are known as an anadramous salmonid; their life cycle initials living both freshwater and seawater. (McCormick, 2013). The reason why Atlantic salmon lay their eggs in fresh water is because; there are fewer predators that could potentially eat the juveniles (Stefansson et al., 2008).
Juvenile salmon now known as Parr will grow to a certain size; instantly beginning the morphological process known as smoltification; a behavioural and physiological evolution that Atlantic salmon go through to prepare for life in sea water (Sundell & Sundh, 2012).
Fresh water and sea water are two different osmotic environments. Atlantic salmon are hyperosmotic when in fresh water; because of osmotic force, causing water to passively entre the fish. During this process, ions are lost to the environment. Unfortunately, Atlantic salmon in fresh water have a low drinking rate as there is no requirement to absorb more water (Sundell & Sundh., 2012).
Osmoregulation is critically beneficial for homeostasis in fish. Slight changes in the ionic concentration of the water can play havoc towards reproduction, growth, stress. Even in some rare occasions interfering with the survival of a fish (Almeida et al., 2013).
In sea water Atlantic salmon are hypoosmotic. Furthermore, because of the osmotic forces over all epithelia, Atlantic salmon are frequently losing water. On the other hand, gaining various amounts of ions. Atlantic salmon then must increase their drinking rate equally increasing the absorption of water by the uptake of NaCl within the intestine. NaCl is instantly directed against the concentration gradient (Grosell., 2011). This is then excreted across the gills within two crucial osmoregulatory tissues, intestine and gills. Fluid intake alongside excretion of addition ions is considerably an energy burdensome task, relying on the conveyance of NaCl against their electrochemical gradient.
Within mammals, it is a natural requirement to intake water; maintaining fluid osmosis and electrolyte homeostasis Prager-Khoutorsky and Bourque, 2015). In Mice, optogenetic stimulation of the glutamatergic neurons enforces water consumption, equally; optogenetic stimulation of neurons located within the same region reduces water consumption Zardetto-Smith et al., 1993; These specific neurons overlap regions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and hindbrain which are more extensive compared to neurons that originate from the subfornical organ. Highlighting, optogenetic stimulation is a key link supporting regulation of drinking responses relating to osmosis.

Osmotic concentration and volume can potentially have disastrous physiological effects. A good example of this can be observed within mammals E. Satinoff, R.A. Prosser the animal has injured themselves who is then suffering from a serious injury. A various amount of blood is lost until the body begins to produce platelet cells; causing the blood to clot simultaneously making the wound seal up; preventing any further fluid loss.
To continue, osmotic concentration in the form of extracellular fluids would remain the same. On the other hand, volume of extracellular fluids most fundamentally the blood, instantly becoming reduced below the average physiological value T.J. Stachniak, E. Trudel, C.W. Bourque. The biggest remonstration for the animal is too ascertain the lost blood volume taking into consideration, obtaining suitable osmotic regulation.
Sweat and saliva can be factors affecting osmotic concentration Br J Dermatol, 178 (2017). Modulated by the autonomic nervous system, a largest amount of regulated water loss takes place within the kidney. This is where water reabsorption within urine is identified by the concentration of vasopressin. m J Physiol Renal Physiol, 311 (2016).
Reverse osmosis can influence growth and nutrient utilization. For instance, calves require drinking water essential for their metabolism, alongside there wellbeing. A moderate amount of water intake is needed for optimal growth. (Chapman et al., 2017). Internally water plays a part of maintaining thermoregulation, osmoregulation within young calves. Senevirathne et al. (2016)
When looking back at Atlantic salmon. It has been hypothesized early maturation of Atlantic salmon potentially leads to osmoregulatory problems. Past investigations have highlighted that permeability of the intestine is increased within mature Atlantic salmon (Sundh et al., unpublished) Because of this it initially becomes harder to uphold a high osmotic gradient.
Body fluid homeostasis is highly challenged by the absence of water intake during the sleep period This increases the electrical activity of neurons towards the end of the active period promoting anticipatory water intake, creating a reserve. On the other hand, because of this biological process it instantly increases the activity of neurons towards the end of sleep period. Maximizing the quantity of water reabsorption by the kidney E. Trudel, C.W. Bourque Nat Neurosci, 13 (2010).

Grosell M. 2011. Intestinal anion exchange in marine teleosts is involved in osmoregulation and contributes to the oceanic inorganic carbon cycle. Acta Physiol, 202, 421-434.
Sundell KS, Sundh H. 2012. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous samonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins. Aquatic Phyiology, Volume 3, Article 388.
uprachiasmatic nuclear lesions eliminate circadian rhythms of drinking and activity, but not of body temperature, in male rats
J Biol Rhythms, 3 (1988), pp. 1-22

E. Trudel, C.W. BourqueCentral clock excites vasopressin neurons by waking osmosensory afferents during late sleep